From agricultural waste, such as waste
Vegetable and fruit crops, as well as tree trimming, such as grape trees, and the remnants of all fruit trees after pruning
And the resulting pruning residues, as well as poultry and livestock waste. In fact, it is a biological decomposition process.
Due to the prevailing microbes in the compost heap, the fertilizer product must provide these microbes with conditions
Ideally, so that these microbes can play their role to the fullest. There are many factors
Which must be taken care of and taken into account in order to obtain a good natural organic fertilizer product in terms of its high level
From organic matter and fertilizer elements so as not to cause pollution to the environment or harm to humans, animals and plants.
1- Waste shredding: The process of fine shredding, crushing and grinding of waste leads to an increase in the decomposition process
As a result of increasing the surface exposed to the waste decomposing organisms, it also helps to increase the rate of ventilation and preserve
Humidity of the compost heap, and good cutting and chopping leads to easy transportation and flipping of the resulting natural compost pile.
2- The ratio of carbon to nitrogen in organic waste (k/n, and the ratio of k/n means the content of the waste
The agricultural crops to be converted into organic fertilizers are made of carbon and nitrogen, and this percentage ranges from
Between 1:5 to 1/500, depending on the type of crop and the most appropriate percentage in which microbes grow well in a heap of
Organic fertilizers are between 12 carbon: 1 nitrogen, so other sources must be added to the fertilizer government
Modify their chemical composition so that microbes can break down complex organic materials into simple ones. in the shortest possible time.
3- Heat: During the decomposition of organic waste to produce compost, the compost releases heat that leads to raising the temperature
The heat of the pile. Also, the raw materials from which the compost is made have a high ability to retain heat, and work must be done
To preserve heat as well as work not to lose it to the outside medium. The closed compost production system in the winter season
By covering the heap and following the open compost system in the summer, so that the temperature does not rise above the limit
d allowed so that there is no loss of fertilizer elements or self-combustion for the government, where it can reach a degree of
Heap heat to 60-80 degrees Celsius, which leads to the death of pathogenic microbes that cannot tolerate
At high temperatures, the resulting compost is free of pathogenic microbes and parasites and is safe for health.
4- Aeration: Compost is produced under aerobic conditions, and therefore the availability of oxygen is very important
And a prerequisite for microbes that analyze the compost heap.
5- Humidity: It is very important to take care of the humidity of the pile, as low humidity leads to discourage growth
Microbes and the increase in the growth of fungi on the surface of the heap and not inside it, and thus there is a loss of the resulting compounds
from decomposition, and high humidity leads to filling the interspaces of the heap granules, thus preventing the entry of
Oxygen, the emergence of anaerobic reaction, and the typical moisture content of the compost heap in compost production is between 50-60%.
Steps for producing organic compost
For the production of organic compost, there are important steps that must be followed with great care.
1- The place of the pile must be well settled and also tamped well and work around it in order to keep the leakage
Which is re-sprayed on the government, and the area must also be proportional to the amount of waste and the most appropriate area to be its width
Two meters and three meters in length, for each ton of plant waste.
2- Plant waste is crushed into small pieces to increase its surface area and increase the effectiveness of microbes
It is preferable to be very soft in order to increase the efficiency of the decomposition microbes and also help to shorten it
The time period for government transformation.
3- Municipal manure, animal manure or poultry and other animal waste is prepared to be added
With well-ground vegetable residues, which are added in alternating layers with each other.
4- Sometimes chemical and biological activators are added during the construction of the heap with the organic municipal fertilizer and additives.
The other. These stimulants are added according to the nature of the plant residue and its availability, namely, the nitrogenous stimulant such as ammonia sulfate.
R at a rate of 15-35 kg per ton of the heap, as well as a phosphate activator such as calcium superphosphate.
At a rate of 3-7 kg per ton of the heap. Also the biological activator, which is liquid microbes or
A solid prepared in specialized laboratories that contains fungal strains, a bacteria and an actinomystat
And protection, which is added during the work of the pile, and microbes can be added to fix atmospheric nitrogen, not symbiotically, and also
Microbes facilitating phosphates until a good organic compost compost is produced.
5- The compost pile is built in successive layers, where the first layer is as follows.
1 – One-tenth of the amount of plant waste is brushed.
2- A tenth of the amount of municipal fertilizer or available waste from chicken blue or other waste is spread
3- A tenth of the amount of chemical stimulants is added if you want to add them.
4- A tenth of the amount of biological stimulants is added if used from the second layer to the tenth layer
. After this is done, a layer of soil is spread to preserve moisture from loss, as well as to maintain the latent temperature of the heap.
After that, the heap is sprayed with water when the humidity is lower than 60%, and the degree of humidity is determined
By taking a sample from the pile by hand and pressing it to find out the moisture content. If the hand is wet, the humidity will be good
Otherwise, the cabinet must be moistened with water. The heap must also be probed by hand to find out the temperature of the pile and to
It should be between 60-80 degrees Celsius. The pile should be turned well every 21 days using a tractor or workers.
The farm has to be very good flipping. This is the heap ripening within 3-4 months.